Duplications and expression of <i>DIVARICATA</i>-like genes in Dipsacales

TitleDuplications and expression of DIVARICATA-like genes in Dipsacales
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsHowarth DG, Donoghue MJ
JournalMolecular Biology and Evolution
Pagination1245 - 1258
KeywordsBIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, core eudicots, Dipsacales, DIVARICATA, EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, floral symmetry, Gene Duplication, gene expression, GENETICS & HEREDITY

The genetics underlying flower symmetry shifts between radial and bilateral symmetry has been intensively studied in the model Antirrhinum majus. Understanding the conservation or diversification of this genetic pathway in other plants is of special interest in understanding angiosperm evolution and ecology. Evidence from Antirrhinum indicates that TCP and MYB transcription factors, especially CYCLOIDEA (CYC), DICHOTOMA (DICH), DIVARICATA (DIV), and RADIALIS (RAD) play a role in specifying dorsal identity (CYC, DICH, and RAD) and ventral identity (DIV) in the corolla and androecium of monosymmetric (bilateral) flowers. Previous data indicate that the ECE clade of TCP genes (including CYC and DICH) underwent two duplication events around the diversification of the core eudicots. In this study, we examined the duplication events within Dipsacales, which contains both radially and bilaterally symmetrical flowered species. Additionally, we report here the phylogenetic relationships of the