The evolution of reproductive characters in Dipsacales

TitleThe evolution of reproductive characters in Dipsacales
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsDonoghue MJ, Bell CD, Winkworth RC
JournalInternational Journal of Plant Sciences
PaginationS453 - S464
KeywordsAdoxaceae, Caprifoliaceae, character evolution, Dipsacaceae, Dipsacales, evolutionarily stable configuration, Flowers, fruits, internal selection, Morinaceae, phylogeny, PLANT SCIENCES, transference of function, Valerianaceae

Improved knowledge of Dipsacales phylogeny provides a solid framework for studies of character evolution. Although the polarity of many characters can now be confidently established, for others it remains unclear. This results largely from uncertainty about the broader relationships of Dipsacales and is especially problematic for characters that differentiate the two basal lineages, Adoxaceae and Caprifoliaceae. Within Caprifoliaceae, changes in stamen number became decoupled from corolla evolution, a reduction from five to four stamens, coinciding with the origin of the Linnina clade. Subsequently, there was a reduction to two stamens within Morinaceae and to three, two, and one within Valerianaceae. In contrast, within Adoxaceae, stamen number covaries with the number of corolla lobes, although the number of stamens was effectively doubled within Adoxina by the division of each stamen. Fleshy fruits may have evolved separately in Adoxaceae and in Caprifolieae. These vary in the numb

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